It has been noted that a number of medications, including corticosteroids, diuretics, analgesics, antihistamines, anticonvulsants, and antidepressants, have been shown to exert anxiolytic and hypnotic effects. A growing number of drugs have been shown to induce sedation, and to affect sleep patterns and wakefulness. Some effects are similar to those experienced by patients under drug influence. These changes in sleep may be due to a sedative effect of the drug, but also to alterations in the brain function, the pharmacological effects of the drug, or to a combination of factors. These factors include, but are not limited to, the patient's physical or psychological state, drug absorption, and pharmacokinetics. Pharmacotherapy. The efficacy of pharmacologists in the treatment of migraine headaches has been established through a number of studies. In general, the drugs used in headache therapy are as follows: α- and γ-adrenergic agonists. The α1 and β1 receptors of the trigeminal nerve can be activated by the α1 agonists, clonidine and clorgyline; however, α2a and α2b receptors are less sensitive to these drugs and, therefore, they are rarely used under the treatment of migraine headache. Injection of clorgyline (25 mg orally daily) or clonidine (15 mg) for several weeks at a time is usually sufficient to resolve migraine pain. Injection of clorgyline is contraindicated in migraine patients with a history of drug-induced catatonia. The β 1 type of receptor receptor that is stimulated by clorgyline inhibits both the α 1 and β 1 receptors. Clorgyline is generally effective for the treatment of migraine headache. Benzodiazepines. In contrast to the β 1 receptors, the β 2 type of receptor is mainly stimulated by phenytoin and is therefore not frequently used in migraine treatment. The use of clonidine also has little effect on the β 2 type receptors. Clonidine stimulates the α2 type receptors, whereas clonidine can suppress both the α 1 and the β 2 receptors for patients with migraine.
Drugs. The analgesic, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and sedative effects of drugs that are currently in clinical use appear at least somewhat similar, although in some cases there are differences or no effect. Examples of some of the drugs are: benzodiazepines (especially diazepam). It has been shown that clonidine and dexmedetomidine (Depadol) can produce sedation. At least one anticonvulsant drug, clonidine, has been shown to produce sleepiness in patients with chronic migraine headache. The effects of clonidine on the sleep environment have become clearer in the past few years. Studies on the effectiveness of clonidine in migraine have mostly been in the context of migraine